10 Useful Linux Commands Every User Should Know

Linux, a popular open-source operating system, is known for its versatility and flexibility. It allows users to perform tasks ranging from basic file management to advanced system administration. One of the reasons for Linux’s popularity is its extensive set of commands that enable users to navigate and manipulate the system efficiently. In this article, we will discuss 10 useful Linux commands that every user should know.

1. pwd (Print Working Directory)

The ‘pwd’ command is used to display the current working directory. This command helps users to keep track of their location in the file system hierarchy. Simply type ‘pwd’ in the terminal and press enter.


$ pwd

2. ls (List)

The ‘ls’ command lists the contents of a directory, including files and directories. By default, it displays the contents of the current directory. Users can also specify a different directory to list its contents.


$ ls
$ ls /path/to/directory


3. cd (Change Directory)

The ‘cd’ command is used to navigate between directories. Users can specify a path to move to a different directory.


$ cd /path/to/directory


4. cp (Copy)

The ‘cp’ command is used to copy files or directories from one location to another. Users can specify the source and destination paths as arguments.


$ cp source destination


5. mv (Move)

The ‘mv’ command is used to move files or directories from one location to another. It can also be used to rename files and directories.


$ mv source destination


6. rm (Remove)

The ‘rm’ command is used to delete files and directories. Users must be cautious while using this command, as deleted files cannot be recovered.


$ rm filename
$ rm -r directoryname


7. mkdir (Make Directory)

The ‘mkdir’ command is used to create new directories in the specified path.


$ mkdir directoryname


8. grep (Global Regular Expression Print)

The ‘grep’ command is a powerful text search tool that allows users to search for specific patterns within files. It supports regular expressions, enabling complex search queries.


$ grep 'pattern' filename


9. cat (Concatenate)

The ‘cat’ command is used to display the contents of a file in the terminal. It can also be used to concatenate multiple files and redirect the output to a new file.


$ cat filename
$ cat file1 file2 > outputfile


10. chmod (Change Mode)

The ‘chmod’ command is used to change file and directory permissions. Users can modify read, write, and execute permissions for the owner, group, and others.


$ chmod permissions filename



These 10 Linux commands are essential for every user to navigate and manage files effectively. Mastering these commands will enhance your productivity and provide a solid foundation for further exploration of the powerful Linux operating system.

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